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Knowledge and Attitudes of Health Care Workers Towards HIV Patients in south western Saudi Arabia: 25 years after the initial report
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Hasan M. Alzahrani, Nabil J. Awadalla, Rawan A. Hadi, Fahd H. AlTameem, Mona H. Alkhayri,
Amal Y. Moshebah, Abdulaziz H. Alqarni, Faisal E. Al-Salateen, Abdulrahman A. Alqahtani,
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DOI: 10.5742MEWFM.2019.93653

Quality of Life and its predictors among Qatari Elderly Attending Primary Health Care Centers in Qatar
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Maha Hammam Alshamali, Mohamed M. Makhlouf, Mervat Rady, Nagah Abdel Aziz Selim, Mansoura Fawaz Salem Ismail
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Population and Community Studies

Safety of hydroxyurea in sickle cell diseases

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Mehmet Rami Helvaci, Onder Tonyali, Mustafa Yaprak, Abdulrazak Abyad, Lesley Pocock
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The Effectiveness of ACT Treatment in Reducing the Symptoms of Depression in Patients with Epilepsy
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Faezeh Alipour
DOI: 10.5742MEWFM.2019.93655


The Status of women in Baluchi epics

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Abdolsamad Hamidi Far,
Habib Jadid-ol-eslami Ghale no
DOI: 10.5742MEWFM.2019.93659

Education and Training

Case Study – Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Robert Di Nicolantonio, Lea Delbridge, Peter Harris, Bill Kelly
DOI: 10.5742MEWFM.2019.93657

Case study – Pyloric stenosis
Robert Di Nicolantonio, Lea Delbridge, Peter Harris, Bill Kelly
DOI: 10.5742MEWFM.2019.93658

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June 2019 - Volume 17, Issue 6

The Status of women in Baluchi epics

Abdolsamad Hamidi far (1)
Habib Jadid-ol-eslami Ghale no

(1) Ph.D. Student of Faculty of Persian Literature and Human Sciences, Zahedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zahedan, Iran
(2) Ph.D. of Literature, Faculty of Persian Literature and Human Sciences, Zahedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zahedan, Iran

Corresponding author:
Habib Jadid-ol-eslami ghale
Ph.D. of Literature, Faculty of Persian Literature and Human Sciences,
Zahedan Branch, Islamic Azad University,
Zahedan, Iran

Received: April 2019; Accepted: May 2019; Published: June 1, 2019. Citation: Abdolsamad Hamidi far, Habib Jadid-ol-eslami ghale. The Status of women in Baluchi epics. World Family Medicine. 2019; 17(6): 37-41. DOI: 10.5742MEWFM.2019.93659


The formation of the most famous Baluch epics like “Bnaly and Dehli conquer“, ”Rend and Lashar”, “Kambar”, “balac”, “Lall”, and “Adinag” are on the basis of the ethnic and regional values and maintaining these values has led to devastating and debilitating wars between nations and women in these epics have always had an essential role as agent or stimulus.

Introduction and status of women in each of these epics, which are especially popular, has been analyzed. The aim of the author of this study was introducing Baluchi literature and culture and also, the most famous women in the Baluchi epics for researchers and lovers of literature of Baluch.

Many books have been written about verse literature of Baluch but no significant work has been written independently in the field of Baluchi women’s epics recognition. Certainly, this is the first independent study of this field and the author, in this paper, focuses on the compilation using literary review method.

Key words: Epic, Baluch, Woman, Bnaly, Gawhar, the mother of Kambar


“Epic, is the adjectival form of poems that (are) based on describing the ethnic or individual heroic and masculine actions which include various aspects of their lives” (Safa 1378: 24).

Epic, history and romance poetry have been quoted for centuries from generations from the farthest parts of Baluchistan, despite the extent of the territory and today have come to the new generations.

“Baluchi epic poetry” like other epic poems in the world is a mix of combat and feasting. Epic battles, praise of heroes, ‘Cites’ , ethnic beliefs, different battles, migrations and the Baluchi’s wars with foreigners are the topics of these poems” (Baluch, 1391: 15).

Poetry, which is called “Shaire” in Baluch, is the song which is the theme of the epic or romance stories, historical and social events, information etc.

The poet is the person who runs the Shaire, with an instrument and singing which is also called Pahlavan (1). Phlavan is a combination of two words ”Pahlaw” and “Van”. Pahlaw is derived from the root of Pahlavi language and means brave, brave and powerful and Van means singer.

“Vanag” in Baluchi is the meaning of singing so Pahlavn can be interpreted as singer, courage and heroism provider. Baluchi Pahlavan not only presents the historical realities of Baluchistan and maintains them for other generations, but can change the course of historical events (Masoudie, 1364:9).

The most important Baluchi poem collections are:

1- Epic collections: Rend and Lashar, Mir kambar, Salr and shahsavr, and Hammal.
2- Historical collections: Dadshah.
3- Romantic collections: Ezzat and Mayrok, šaymorid and Hani, Jalal khan, Sassy and Ponno, Shirin and Dosten, Shahdad and Mahnaz, and Samanbar and Heidar.

Because of the diversity of ethnic, geographic, climate, governmental, economic and cultural aspects, different parts of Baluchistan have various accents, proverbs and stories of their own which are for the sake of living, the government, and other factors of life.

The background of Baluchi literature research is recognised by the recent centuries, firstly for foreign researchers. The most famous of them was M. Longworth dreams .

In addition to foreign scholars, Baluch researchers in Baluchistan of Pakistan such as Seyed Zohour Hashemi, Faghir shad, Golkhn Nasir, and Karim Dashty are presented. Baluch researchers in Baluchistan of Iran have also partly completed research in the field of literature and culture of Baluch. Though researchers of Baluchisatn in Pakistn were more fortunate because they had accessto more resources and published works. From Baluch researchers of Iran’s Baluchistan we can refer to Mousa Mahmoud Zahi the author of “Celebrities of Baluchistan”, “Beliefs, regulations and culture of Baluchistn”, “The art of Baluchistan” and Abdolhossein Yadegari, the author of “Baluch people epics”, Azim Shahbakhsh the author of “the story of Dadshah, in research of Contemporary History of Baluchistan”, Abdolsamad Hamidifar the author of a master thesis entitled “Morphology of šaymorid and Hani” and ‘Manuscript collections of Shaikh and Rendan and Hani’, by Abdolvhed Borhani.

But no significant independent research has been written on the recognition of the epic women and their status.

Epics that have been proposed in this paper, are recorded as a poem in the book “Miras (2)“ by Faghir Shad, and these stories are common orally with different versions among the Baluch people.

Baluchi glossary by Sayed Zohor shah hashemi is used in most cases to translate the vocabularies. Many of the poets of the poems are unknown and the stories are ancient, about Iran’s Safavids era. In some parts of the paper, Baluchi poetry is mentioned with transliteration and translation, for example are Taken from the book “Epic in Baluchistan by “Abdulghafour Jahndideh”. Literary review method was used.

The author has tried to analyze a number of women who have a role in the epics of the Baluch like “Banaly and Delhi conquer”, “Rend and Lashar”, “Kambar”, “balac”, “Lalla” and “Adinag” and their roles as an agent or stimulus.

Baluch epic is about women’s destiny which has made Baluch history. Many of these women are representative of the society and culture where the woman is not just lowly , but sometimes even higher than men’s status and obviously such a woman is raised from Baluchistan.

Women in Baluch culture are respected as a taboo, and an affront to their character is not an offense that can easily be devoid of consequences.

It seems that some of the women’s freedom and power and exceptional bravery in Baluchi poems demonstrate respect and dignity of women among people who have promoted the narratives and stories. In these poems the most prominent women are from big families and large ethnic groups. These epic characters are unique and living women.

Women also have a special place in one of the most prestigious Baluch Alliances and her portrayal is that of a refuge . For someone who wants to be free of oppression and puts themself under the protection of another powerful person, it is sufficient to say: “I’m “Mayr” of your wife’s wearing (hijab)” and then that person supports and protects him forever. The anonymity of the Baluchi language and literature in Iran and the lack of resources required the writing of this article to be partly analytical.

“Banaly and Delhi conquer” epic
Banaly or Bnary compared to the rest of Baluch women has more courage and bravery and she was manifest as the perfect woman.

Banaly is cakar’s sister and mirn’s mother, and wears combat clothes and participates alongside Baluch men in a war called “Dehli war “.

In Dehli war, about one hundred and thirty thousand men of Baluch including “ca kar» and «Miran” were present. Gwahram, is made aware of the King of Delhi and says:

šah tayar baw laškar o pawga .....................That the Shah (king), with your army (be) alert [to fight]

The Shah of Delhi was fully prepared to fight with the Baluch people. Baluch people had a fierce battle with Delhi’s King. kar was ordered to retreat hobson either by policy , however, midway noticed that Banaly and some of the riders were absent. Given Miran’s long-standing hatred of Delhi’s Shah, he returned to the palace. He found Bnaly and Shah fighting. Mirn shouts angrily at Shah: “the one who fights with you is a woman”. Shah says to Banaly:

“So you’re a woman, get out of the way ”.

Banaly responded to King:

Ag gann yn tai gan e hazmn .......... if I’m a woman, I’m not like other women, and I am even better than your wife.

Gan ham gant ke mtagn nendant .......Woman would say to someone who sits at home.
Panno mozwko mahparn randant
Gn wati mardn dazgol?š ant

Women are made for their husbands.

Man ganna pa magles a nayln..................... I don’t like such woman and I won’t accompany them. (pages 279-280)

Banaly, who was a skilled fencer, with her son Mirn, prevailed on the Shah of Dehli.

Banaly’s persistence and courage caused a Baluch victory in the war with the King of Dehli. Bnaly’s warfare, reminds us how Gord was afraid to fight against Sohrab in Shahnameh. Although in this the war, there were many Baluch tribes and also great commanders such as cakar. But this epic with Banaly’s name became well known and her name now has a deep root in the ancient culture of Baluch.

Epic of Rend and Lashar
Gawhar, Radow’s daughter was a widow with abundant wealth. The remnant poetry contains this upbeat passage that after the returning of Lashr’s army from the Delhi battle, gwahram the Lashari and the Nohni commander remembers that no tax from Gawhar, a wealthy woman who sponsored him, was not received. He sends some persons of Lashri and Nohni tribes to Gawhar in order to talk and collect taxes. When Gawhar hears the words of the messenger of gwahram she answers that: “If God has endowed me wealth, Gwahram must not to be greedy about that. Is he teased me because I live on his estate? If it is so, I cannot leave here and go elsewhere.

After hearing her taunts Gwahrm’s special messenger arises without objection but Nohnis was not satisfied and did not leave; they gave away the properties inside the tents and thenleft. After that, Gawhar moved from there without delay and goes to the kar and tells him:

Gwar taw atkagn bhti for protection,......... I come to you
ihn o ber gangh ......................consider a place for me and prepare it now (p 171)

Gwahram found that Gawhar moved and sent some of his men to bring her back to kaar. They attacked her camp and looted all her assets. They even killed her cattle and camels and returned to Lashar.

This blatant violation of the privacy of a woman, who was a refugee of a proud man like kar, obviously started the Thirty Years’ War between Rand and Lashar.

Gwahram, who attacked nightly and was lucky to get away, was ready to stand against a wounded leopard of Rend. But cakar had seen the cowardly betrayal of Gwahram and mindless and with the onslaught of emotions, only with a number of troops and weapons left to pursue the attackers. Gwahram with forethought deployed his corps and waited forca kar‘s army. The corps was defeated in the war and lost one of their skilled fighters (mirn. In the later war, the twenty-fifth war. Gwahram went to “Send” in order to provide crops and hired warriors from “Samme” and “Botto” tribes. kar went to Herat’s King Arghun for help. He won in the final battle.

Gawhar was the main cause of the ruinous war between Gwahrm and cakar.

This invasion of Gawhar’s privacy was in fact an invasion to kar’s, and he felt damaged himself.

Epic of “Kambar”
A large army led by Mehrb, Osman and Mazar from the East of Baluchistan on the pretext of getting taxes moved to the south and in any area where they arrived, looted their properties and captured men, girls and women. This army arrived in Malrn, Bent and Dahn. The herds of the Maloran were looted and killed; also many men and women were captured. One of the soldiers went to Bent and let Kambar know this. Kambar was upset to hear this because he was the guardian of property and dignity of the people and people were protected by him.

Kambar firstly went to his mother and said:

Mati mani mat mkkahen....................... Mother, my dear mother;
Hakakn pahel kan ke rawan .................forgive me, now I’m going (page 557)

The mother of Kambar answers:
Šir et pahell ent bac mani ................... I forgive you my son

Man pa tai rodenag o Baz kašš etag gawr o gapa ........................
I’ve suffered so much for your growing

Then she continues:
When you go to war and release captives, and return triumphant, then friends, will talk about your masculine fighting. If you were killed, even if I was old I will be young and sing the song of happiness. Your body will go to the cemetery with lyrics and song, I’ll rejoice sennight , and I’ll remarry and will breed another child instead of you. Mir kambar said good bye to his mother and called his wife. His wife came out with ornaments and makeup and told him: We are newlywed; it’s just a week we are married. Kambar gave her three Gold coins and said: dear wife, this is your divorce and Mehrieh, you have now freedom to remarry because I might get killed in war.
Kambar went to battle with his army; many of the looters were killed in this war and all the prisoners were released, but Kambar was killed. His mother buried his body with happiness.

Kambar’s mother was the only one who encouraged Kambar to go to war. She was a brave woman for whom name and shame was more important than all else, for her although the name and shame was at the expense of losing her son. Her courage reminds us of the mother of “Hasanak Vazir” in “Beyhaghi history” or perhaps “Golmohammad’s” mother in “Kelidar’s” novel by Dolat bdi , perhaps above them.

Epic of balac
Sammi was a Wealthy widow and lived in Dd neighborhood. Someone called “Bibagr” who was one of the rulers, attacked her house and plundered all her property including the cattle herd. Sammi brings the news to Lalen (Doda’s mother).

Lalen goes immediately to the Doda’s house and says:

a mard ke mayaran gall ant .......................The man who takes refuge

n Nemro n a nawapsant kollan...................... Do not sleep in the middle of the day in a room

Dost o šarsarn granmollan ......................with his beautiful wife

Doda, hearing taunts of his mother Lalen, arises, and prepared to return the cattle of Sammi. First he divorced his wife so that he was not her dependent on the battlefield or if he was killed in the war; his wife wasn’t a widow and could marry another man.

Lalen encourages her son to fight with enemies and says:

Nazen et mani bacig a ............................Praise my son
Bacci ca dowa yakke kant .......................My son will do one of two things:
Hayši cotawan bazen it ................or loses his precious hair (will be killed)
Gokan sargamig a karit .................. or all the cows, [those looted] will be returned.

Doda moves with his comrades and with his little brother Bl who at that time was very young following him, but Doda stopped him. Doda said:” You stay at home, if we die, take revenge on the enemy”.

Balac returns home. In the “Garmap” area Doda arrives at Bibagr’s crops. Bibagr, who was ambushed, attacked Dd’s army and killed him and his colleagues in a hard battle.

Their blood will not be overwhelmed. Balac and Nakibou became allies to take his revenge. Years, Balac was lurking with Bibagr. Until one day he sees Bibagr from afar and kills him immediately.

Sammi is the main cause of this war. Bibagr had unfairly invaded her privacy and it was in fact invading Doda’s because Sammi was his refugee. Lalen is aware of refuging. She ordered Doda to take back Sammi’s looted properties. Lln even encouraged Balac to revenge. She reminds us of the mother of Kambar.

Epic of Lalla
Granaz was Lalla’s wife and Mirbaran’s daughter. Mirbaran who was Chieftain with his sons and son in law (Lalla) went to battlefield. Mirbaran and his sons and brothers were killed in war and Lalla was severely injured and one of his comrades was taken out of the arena. Others reported his survival to his wife, in other words:” He fled from the battlefield”. Granaz who lost her father, brothers and uncles became very angry and messaged to her husband: “I wish I heard your death news instead of your escape. Then I spoke with pride about you and praised your courage “.

Granaz didn’t welcome him at home and Lal awent to his mother’s house to have his wounds treated. He answered his wife: “I’ve not escaped from war, I am hurt and my companion brought me out of the field, When my wounds are treated I’ll return to the battlefield to take revenge.

Finally he recovered and took revenge and went back home.

Granaz in this war encouraged her husband to fight, with sarcasm and she wished if her wife died or took revenge.

Epic of Adinag
One day, “kar ku lovahi” and his men passedby. Along the way, they saw “Ali” ride slowly, a female animal. One of the Cakar’s men called him and said: Ride faster. Ali answered: The animal is incapable and cannot go fast.

The man said ridiculously and impolitely: then you have to mate with her to cure her disability. li became angry and answered: do it with kar’s mother because she is a strumpet.

Cakar’s men took li and tied his hands and legs like animals and put grass out for him. When they arrived home he said to his daughter: we tied an old man in the pampas, go and take care of his food and water. Fatimah guessed that old man was her father.

She asked her husband (Adam) immediately to go that place. He found li but Ali didn’t want to come back home and said: how do I return home while people tease me? Adam answered: my uncle I promise to revenge otherwise I’ll never go to bed with my wife.A dinag, an old son of Ali said: I promise to revenge otherwise I’ll never speak to anyone. Waždi, the other son of li said I’ll never take my shoes off until I have revenge.

After these covenants one day early Adam was washing his body, people saw him and gossiped that Adam was not committed to his promise. He went to bed with his wife last night and took ritual in the morning. Of course, people either did not know or pretended to ignore that Adam was washed because of his autoerotism during the night. Rumors reached Fatimah and made her angry .she said then:

Ali tai caran bac mabiten ant, ................... Ali I wish you had not four children

Ali tai caren bac gann etan, ..................... AliI wish your sons were born daughters

Daštagen zamat et daren ean ................and your son in law wasn’t in your family and then you weren’t teased. Adam answered: You know that I have not broken the covenant.

Fatimah said: Why you do not take revenge?

Fatimah’s words made her husband more determined.

Adam attacked Cakar’s palace with Ali’s sons. Cakar was lucky in this war. Some of Ali’s men were killed. Adinag, Ali’s older son ordered retreat. Later in another opportunity Cakar who was moving to his farm, was killed by Adinag.

In this war Fatimah’s sarcasm causes Adam to be more determined to take revenge.


Factors that led to the formation of these epics were due to adherence to these values:

1- Mayrgalli: asylum is one of the most valuable traits of Baluch heroes. (Gawhar found refuge of kar and Sammi found refuge to Dd).
2- Br: what made kar, Kambar,Dd,Bla,Lall,Adinag and Bnaly popular, was masculinity and feeling of vendetta. They are historical remnants and portray enmity and hatred from these characters against their enemies portrays the ideals of the Baluch nation which defended the rights of the oppressed.

Women who have been raised in these epics, in fact, had a key role as a stimulant or a cause of the war'.

1- Accepting asylum and refugee support.
2- Revenge and avenger of the enemy.


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